ISO paper size 210 x 297mm used for Letterhead.
All original copy, including type, photos and illustrations, intended for printing. Also called art.
Usually a department within a printing company responsible for collating, folding and trimming various printing projects.
Printing that extends to the edge of a sheet or page after trimming.
Prepress photographic proof made from stripped negatives where all colors show as blue images on white paper. Because 'blueline' is a generic term for proofs made from a variety of materials having identical purposes and similar appearances, it may also be called a blackprint, blue, blueprint, brownline, brownprint, diazo, dyeline, ozalid, position proof, silverprint, Dylux and VanDyke.
General term for paper over 110# index, 80# cover or 200 gsm that is commonly used for products such as file folders, displays and post cards. Also called paperboard.
Category of paper commonly used for writing, printing and photocopying. Also called business paper, communication paper, correspondence paper and writing paper.
Category of paper suitable for books, magazines, catalogs, advertising and general printing needs. Book paper is divided into uncoated paper (also called offset paper), coated paper (also called art paper, enamel paper, gloss paper and slick paper) and text paper.
The decorative design or rule surrounding matter on a page.
General term referring to paper 6 points or thicker with basis weight between 90# and 200# (200-500 gsm). Used for products such as index cards, file folders and displays.
Mechanicals, photographs and art fully prepared for reproduction according to the technical requirements of the printing process being used. Also called finished art and reproduction copy.
Covers and spine that, as a unit, enclose the pages of a casebound book.
High gloss, coated paper made by pressing the paper against a polished, hot, metal drum while the coating is still wet.
Coated paper rated #4 or #5 with basis weight from 35# to 50# (50 to 75 gsm) commonly used for catalogs and magazines.
Abbreviation for cyan, magenta, yellow and key (black), the four process colors.
Halftone screen with ruling of 65, 85 or 100 lines per inch (26, 34 or 40 lines centimeter).
Paper with a coating of clay and other substances that improves reflectivity and ink holdout. Mills produce coated paper in the four major categories cast, gloss, dull and matte.
(1) Technique of using a camera, scanner or computer to divide continuous-tone color images into four halftone negatives. (2) The product resulting from color separating and subsequent four-color process printing. Also called separation.
Film (transparent) used as art to perform color separations.
Printer producing a wide range of products such as announcements, brochures, posters, booklets, stationery, business forms, books and magazines. Also called job
printer because each job is different.
Mechanical on which copy for reproduction in all colors appears on only one surface, not separated onto overlays. Composite art has a tissue overlay with instructions that indicate color breaks.
Film made by combining images from two or more pieces of working film onto one film for making one plate.
Proof of color separations in position with graphics and type. Also called final proof, imposition proof and stripping proof.
(1) In typography, the assembly of typographic elements, such as words and paragraphs, into pages ready for printing. (2) In graphic design, the arrangement of type, graphics and other elements on the page.
Device with lights, timing mechanism and vacuum frame used to make contact prints, duplicate film, proofs and plates. Also called platemaker and vacuum frame.
The degree of tones in an image ranging from highlight to shadow.
Surface or frame on a process camera that holds copy in position to be photographed.
Lines near the edges of an image indicating portions to be reproduced. Also called cut marks and tic marks.
To dry inks, varnishes or other coatings after printing to ensure good adhesion and prevent setoff.
A machine that cuts stacks of paper to desired sizes. The machine can also be used in scoring or creasing.
One of the four process colors. Also known as process blue.
Technique of using a personal computer to design images and pages, and assemble type and graphics, then using a laser printer or imagesetter to output the assembled pages onto paper, film or printing plate. Abbreviated DTP.
Page proofs produced through electronic memory transferred onto paper via laser or ink-jet.
Direct Digital Color Proof
Color proof made by a laser, ink jet printer or other computer-controlled device without needing to make separation films first. Abbreviated DDCP.
Measure of resolution of input devices such as scanners, display devices such as monitors, and output devices such as laser printers, imagesetters and monitors. Abbreviated DPI. Also called dot pitch.
Considered as "dots per square inch," a measure of output resolution in relationship to printers, imagesetters and monitors.
Thick paper made by pasting highlights together two thinner sheets, usually of different colors. Also called double-faced paper and two-tone paper.
Offset press made for quick printing.
(1) Publishing by printing with device, such as a photocopy machine or ink jet printer, driven by a computer that can change the image instantly from one copy to the next. (2) Publishing via output on fax, computer bulletin board or other electronic medium, as compared to output on paper.
Encapsulated PostScript file
Computer file containing both images and PostScript commands. Abbreviated EPS file.
Encapsulated Post Script, a known file format usually used to transfer post script information from one program to another.
Price that states what a job will probably cost. Also called bid, quotation and tender.
Thin sheet of plastic bonded to a printed product for protection or increased gloss.
Papers made specifically for writing or commercial printing, as compared to coarse papers and industrial papers. Also called cultural papers and graphic papers.
Screen with ruling of 150 lines per inch (80 lines per centimeter) or more.
A bindery machine dedicated to folding printed materials.
With printed matter, markings indicating where a fold is to occur, usually located at the top edges.
Gatefold sheet bound into a publication, often used for a map or chart. Also called gatefold and pullout.
Folio (page number)
The actual page number in a publication.
Four-color Process Printing
Technique of printing that uses black, magenta, cyan and yellow to simulate full-color images. Also called color process printing, full color printing and process printing.
Proof of type from any Source, whether metal type or photo type. Also called checker and slip proof.
Consider the light reflecting on various objects in the printing industry (e.g., paper, ink, laminates, UV coating, varnish).
Ink used and printed on coated stock (mostly litho and letterpress) such as the ink will dry without penetration.
General term used to distinguish between or among printing papers, but whose specific meaning depends on context. Grade can refer to the category, class, rating, finish or brand of paper.
Predominant direction in which fibers in paper become aligned during manufacturing. Also called machine direction.
Grain Long Paper
Paper whose fibers run parallel to the long dimension of the sheet. Also called long grain paper and narrow web paper.
Grain Short Paper
Paper whose fibers run parallel to the short dimension of the sheet. Also called short grain paper and wide web paper.
The crafts, industries and professions related to designing and printing on paper and other substrates.
Graphic Arts Film
Film whose emulsion yields high contrast images suitable for reproduction by a printing press, as compared to continuous-tone film. Also called litho film and repro film.
Arrangement of type and visual elements along with specifications for paper, ink colors and printing processes that, when combined, convey a visual message.
Visual elements that supplement type to make printed messages more clear or interesting.
Strip of gray values ranging from white to black. Used by process camera and scanner operators to calibrate exposure times for film and plates. Also called step wedge.
Approximately 1/8 inch (3 mm) along the spine that is ground off gathered signatures before perfect binding.
Edge of a sheet held by grippers on a sheetfed press, thus going first through the press. Also called feeding edge and leading edge.
In the book arena, the inside margins toward the back or the binding edges.
Subjective term referring to very small space, thin line or close register. The meaning depends on who is using the term and in what circumstances.
(1) To photograph or scan a continuous tone image to convert the image into halftone dots. (2) A photograph or continuous-tone illustration that has been halftoned and appears on film, paper, printing plate or the final printed product.
Piece of film or glass containing a grid of lines that breaks light into dots. Also called contact screen and screen.
At the top of a page, the margin.
Imposition with heads (tops) of pages facing tails (bottoms) of other pages.
Printing defect caused when a piece of dirt or an air bubble caused incomplete draw-down during contact platemaking, leaving an area of weak ink coverage or visible dot gain.
specific color such as yellow or green.
The actual area on the printed matter that is not restricted to ink coverage,
(1) Referring to an ink color, one impression equals one press sheet passing once through a printing unit. (2) Referring to speed of a press, one impression equals one press sheet passing once through the press.
To print new copy on a previously printed sheet, such as imprinting an employee's name on business cards. Also called surprint.
Ink Jet Printing
Method of printing by spraying droplets of ink through computer-controlled nozzles. Also called jet printing.
Within a publication, an additional item positioned into the publication loose (not bound in).
Printed pages loosely inserted in a publication.
A number assigned to a published work and usually found either on the title page or the back of the title page. Considered an International Standard Book Number.
A number assigned to a specific printing project in a printing company for use in tracking and historical record keeping.
Abbreviation for black in four-color process printing. Hence the 'K' in CMYK.
Lines on a mechanical or negative showing the exact size, shape and location of photographs or other graphic elements. Also called holding lines.
Strong paper used for wrapping and to make grocery bags and large envelopes.
A thin transparent plastic sheet (coating) applied to usually a thick stock (covers, post cards, etc.) providing protection against liquid and heavy use, and usually accents existing color, providing a glossy (or lens) effect.
Artist style in which width is greater than height. (Portrait is opposite.)
Bond paper made especially smooth and dry to run well through laser printers.
Ink that will not fade or blister as the paper on which it is printed is used in a laser printer.
A sample of the original providing (showing) position of printed work (direction, instructions) needed and desired.
Two folds creating three panels that allow a sheet of letterhead to fit a business envelope. Also called barrel fold and wrap around fold.
In North America, 8 1/2' x 11' sheets. In Europe, A4 sheets.
Directions about a specific matter (illustrations) and how to use. In regard to maps and tables, an explanation of signs (symbols) used.
Book paper with basis weight less than 40# (60 gsm).
Any high-contrast image, including type, as compared to continuous-tone copy. Also called line art and line work.
Negative made from line copy.
Embossed finish on text paper that simulates the pattern of linen cloth.
Method of printing using plates whose image areas attract ink and whose nonimage areas repel ink. Nonimage areas may be coated with water to repel the oily ink or may have a surface, such as silicon, that repels ink.
Area on a mechanical within which images will print. Also called safe area.
A company, partnership or corporate creation (design) that denotes a unique entity. A possible combination of letters and art work to create a "sole" entity symbol of that specific unit.
Binding method allowing insertion and removal of pages in a publication (e.g., trim-4-drill-3).
One of the four process colors.
Imprinted space around the edge of the printed material.
Paper or plastic plate used on a duplicating press.
Flat (not glossy) finish on photographic paper or coated printing paper.
Camera-ready assembly of type, graphic and other copy complete with instructions to the printer. A hard mechanical consists of paper and/or acetate, is made using paste-up techniques, and may also be called an artboard, board or paste-up. A soft mechanical, also called an electronic mechanical, exists as a file of type and other images assembled using a computer.
Color breaks made on the mechanical using a separate overlay for each color to be printed.
Paper coated with a thin film of plastic or pigment whose color and gloss simulate metal.
Paper used in printing newspapers. Considered low quality and "a short life use."
Printing technique that transfers ink from a plate to a blanket to paper instead of directly from plate to paper.
(1) Characteristic of paper or other substrate that prevents printing on one side from showing through the other side. (2) Characteristic of ink that prevents the substrate from showing through.
A specific lightweight type (kind) of paper usually used in the past for air mail. Seldom used today (in the typewriter era).
(1) Not transparent. (2) To cover flaws in negative with tape or opaquing paint. Also called block out and spot.
Open Prepress Interface
Hardware and software that link desktop publishing systems with color electronic prepress systems.
Layer of material taped to a mechanical, photo or proof. Acetate overlays are used to separate colors by having some type or art on them instead of on the mounting board. Tissue overlays are used to carry instructions about the underlying copy and to protect the base art.
Color proof consisting of polyester sheets laid on top of each other with their image in register, as compared to integral proof. Each sheet represents the image to be printed in one color. Also called celluloid proof and layered proof.
Additional printed matter beyond order. Overage policy varies in the printing industry. Advance questions avoid blind knowledge.
One side of a leaf in a publication.
Proof of type and graphics as they will look on the finished page complete with elements such as headings, rules and folios.
One page of a brochure, such as one panel of a rack brochure. One panel is on one side of the paper. A letter-folded sheet has six panels, not three.
A printing plate made of strong and durable paper in the short run offset arena (cost effective with short runs).
Method of folding. Two parallel folds to a sheet will produce 6 panels.
Chipboard with another paper pasted to it.
To paste copy to mounting boards and, if necessary, to overlays so it is assembled into a camera-ready mechanical. The mechanical produced is often called a paste-up.
To bind sheets that have been ground at the spine and are held to the cover by glue. Also called adhesive bind, cut-back bind, glue bind, paper bind, patent bind, perfecting bind, soft bind and soft cover. See also Burst Perfect Bind.
Press capable of printing both sides of the paper during a single pass. Also called duplex press and perfector.
On a "dummy" marking where the perforation is to occur.
Taking place on a press or a binder machine, creating a line of small dotted wholes for the purpose of tearing-off a part of a printed matter (usually straight lines, vertical or horizontal).
A unit of measure in the printing industry. A pica is approximately 0.166 in. There are 12 points to a pica.
Short for picture element, a dot made by a computer, scanner or other digital device. Also called pel.
Printing method whose image carriers are level surfaces with inked areas separated from noninked areas by chemical means. Planographic printing includes lithography, offset lithography and spirit duplicating.
Piece of paper, metal, plastic or rubber carrying an image to be reproduced using a printing press.
(1) In quick printing, a process camera that makes plates automatically from mechanicals. (2) In commercial lithography, a machine with a vacuum frame used to expose plates through film.
Stripped negatives or positives fully prepared for platemaking.
Obsolete reference to Pantone Matching System. The correct trade name of the colors in the Pantone Matching System is Pantone colors, not PMS Colors.
An art design in which the height is greater than the width. (Opposite of Landscape.)
Film that prevents light from passing through images, as compared to negative film that allows light to pass through. Also called knockout film.
To bind using a screw and post inserted through a hole in a pile of loose sheets.
Camera work, color separations, stripping, platemaking and other prepress functions performed by the printer, separator or a service bureau prior to printing. Also called preparation.
Any color proof made using ink jet, toner, dyes or overlays, as compared to a press proof printed using ink. Also called dry proof and off-press proof.
To print portions of sheets that will be used for later imprinting.
Event at which makeready sheets from the press are examined before authorizing full production to begin.
Proof made on press using the plates, ink and paper specified for the job. Also called strike off and trial proof.
Any process that transfers to paper or another substrate an image from an original such as a film negative or positive, electronic memory, stencil, die or plate.
Surface carrying an image to be printed. Quick printing uses paper or plastic plates; letterpress, engraving and commercial lithography use metal plates; flexography uses rubber or soft plastic plates. Gravure printing uses a cylinder. The screen printing is also called a plate.
Camera used to photograph mechanicals and other camera-ready copy. Also called copy, camera and graphic arts camera. A small, simple process camera may be called a stat camera.
Process Color (Inks)
The colors used for four-color process printing: yellow, magenta, cyan and black.
Press run intended to manufacture products as specified, as compared to makeready.
Test sheet made to reveal errors or flaws, predict results on press and record how a printing job is intended to appear when finished.
Standard symbols and abbreviations used to mark up manuscripts and proofs. Also called correction marks.
Round device used to calculate percent that an original image must by reduced or enlarged to yield a specific reproduction size. Also called percentage wheel, proportion dial, proportion wheel and scaling wheel.
Paper made in weights, colors and surfaces suited to books, magazines, catalogs and free-standing inserts.
Printing using small sheetfed presses, called duplicators, using cut sizes of bond and offset paper.
Raster Image Processor
Device that translates page description commands into bitmapped information for an output device such as a laser printer or imagesetter.
500 sheets of paper.
New paper made entirely or in part from old paper.
To place printing properly with regard to the edges of paper and other printing on the same sheet. Such printing is said to be in register.
Cross-hair lines on mechanicals and film that help keep flats, plates, and printing in register. Also called crossmarks and position marks.
Sharpness of an image on film, paper, computer screen, disc, tape or other medium.
An image, such as the GATF Star Target, that permits evaluation of resolution on film, proofs or plates.
Abbreviation for red, green, blue, the additive color primaries.
Printing press which passes the substrate between two rotating cylinders when making an impression.
Line used as a graphic element to separate or organize copy.
To bind by stapling sheets together where they fold at the spine, as compared to side stitch. Also called pamphlet stitch, saddle wire and stitch bind.
Alternate term for dull finish on coated paper.
To identify the percent by which photographs or art should be enlarged or reduced to achieve, the correct size for printing.
Electronic device used to scan an image.
To compress paper along a straight line so it folds more easily and accurately. Also called crease.
Refers to the percentage of ink coverage that a screen tint allows to print. Also called screen percentage.
Method of printing by using a squeegee to force ink through an assembly of mesh fabric and a stencil.
Usually in the book arena, a publication not having a cover stock. A publication only using text stock throughout.
A printed item independent of an envelope. A printed item capable of travel in the mailing arena independently.
Usually in the four-color process arena, separate film holding qimages of one specific color per piece of film. Black, Cyan, Magenta and Yellow. Can also separate specific PMS colors through film.
Business using imagesetters to make high resolution printouts of files prepared on microcomputers. Also called output house and prep service.
Printer whose equipment, supplies, work flow and marketing is targeted to a particular category of products.
Complete and precise written description of features of a printing job such as type size and leading, paper grade and quantity, printing or binding method. Abbreviated specs.
Back or binding edge of a publication
To bind using a spiral of continuous wire or plastic looped through holes. Also called coil bind.
(1) Different images, such as advertisements, printed in different editions of a publication. (2) Printing of a book that has some copies bound one way and other copies bound another way.
Spot Color or Varnish
One ink or varnish applied to portions of a sheet, as compared to flood or painted sheet.
(1) Two pages that face each other and are designed as one visual or production unit. (2) Technique of slightly enlarging the size of an image to accomplish a hairline trap with another image. Also called fatty.
Order for paper that a mill or merchant sends to a printer from inventory at a warehouse, as compared to a mill order.
Any surface or material on which printing is done.
Abbreviation for specifications for web offset publications, specifications recommended for web printing of publications.
Using a broadsheet as a measure, one half of a broadsheet.
Grade of dense, strong paper used for products such as badges and file folders.
Tagged Image File Format
Computer file format used to store images from scanners and video devices. Abbreviated TIFF.
Concerning a printing project's basic details in regard to its dimensions. A standard layout.
Screening or adding white to a solid color for results of lightening that specific color.
To print one ink over another or to print a coating, such as varnish, over an ink. The first liquid traps the second liquid. See also Dry Traps and Wet Traps.
The size of the printed material in its finished stage (e.g., the finished trim size is 5 12 x 8 12).
Paper that has not been coated with clay. Also called offset paper.
Liquid applied to a printed sheet, then bonded and cured with ultraviolet light.
Liquid applied as a coating for protection and appearance.
Translucent logo in paper created during manufacturing by slight embossing from a dandy roll while paper is still approximately 90 percent water.
Press that prints from rolls of paper, usually cutting it into sheets after printing. Also called reel-fed press. Web presses come in many sizes, the most common being mini, half, three quarter (also called 8-pages) and full (also called 16-pages).
With the Grain
Parallel to the grain direction of the paper being used, as compared to against the grain. See also Grain Direction.
Intermediate film that will be copied to make final film after all corrections are made. Also called buildups.